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endomed 581 manualHigh Res Graphics Logos and vector graphics Electrotherapy Couches Active rehabilitation Occiflex Download all graphics In order to view all content please login. In case any of the herunder shown manuals is not available (broken link) then please do not hesitate to contact us. Please note - download the most recent manual on the product pages. This listing is mainly for downloading superseeded versions. Can be extended with Hands-Free ultrasound therapy! Auch verfugbar mit Handsfree Ultraschalltherapie Possible avec l'application d'ultrasons stationnaire Con optional ultrasuoni a mani libere Con la opcion de ultrasonido estacionaria - manos libres Optioneel met hands-free ultrageluidtherapie For Enraf-Nonius the health and wellbeing of our customers and employees is our highest priority. We would like to reassure you that our policies and procedures continue to be in line with the guidance provided by the World Health Organisation (WHO) and the Dutch National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM). We remain in regular contact with the authorities and will amend our procedures if and when required if guidance changes. We are committed to fulfilling our responsibility as supplier and service partner. We will continue to support you in the best way we can and do not foresee any short-term changes in our performance as your partner. We will however keep you updated in case changes are expected. For any changes in your requirements from us in light of the additional challenges faced by us all, do not hesitate to reach out to us. We remain at your service as usual. For more information call us on 028 9266 5482. The deployment of pain control and muscle stimulation has a long history and is well substantiated scientifically. The use of electrotherapy is not invasive, easy to apply and will not burden the patient. Electrotherapy is, therefore, often an excellent alternative to medication or other interventions.http://drvipinmishra.com/userfiles/digital-photo-frame-samsung-manual.xml

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This integrated vacuum unit ensures that applying electrotherapy through vacuum electrodes becomes very quick and easy. Muscles can be stimulated to improve the function of soft tissue. Electrotherapy can be used to measure differentiated tissue response to stimulation, to provide a diagnosis about tissue quality. Antrim, Northern Ireland, BT27 5BG. You can log in. Login Enter another email address This phone number is already registered. You can sign in Sign in to a different account Enter a different phone number Contact the buyer to send more information Contact seller for more information Email Address: Your mobile phone number: Your name and surname: Password: Fill in the field Russia Forgot your password. PASSWORD RECOVERY ? E-mail address is entered incorrectly Your phone number Fill in the field Russia Send Translate incoming messages Translate outgoing messages SEND CONTACT BUYER SUBMIT YOUR MESSAGE SENDED. THANK YOU The confirmation letter was sent to you email You will be contacted soon Your offer was sent You've already responded to this Ad. Link to your chat: The email address you have entered has already been registered. You can log in. Login Enter another email address SUBSCRIBE Russia Fill in the field Russia I confirm registration and accept User Agreement SUBSCRIBE Show Bimedis processes personal data about users of our site, through the use of cookies to deliver our services, personalize advertising and to analyze site activity. We may share certain information about our users with our advertising and analytics partners. For additional details, refer to the Bimedis Privacy Policy. By clicking ''I AGREE'' below, you agree to the Bimedis Privacy Policy and Bimedis’s personal data processing and cookie practices as described therein. I AGREE BUYER REGISTRATION SIGN IN REGISTER FACEBOOK GOOGLE OR Forgot your password. PASSWORD RECOVERY ?http://finpacecuador.com/userfiles/digital-photo-frame-philips-manual.xml E-mail address is entered incorrectly Your phone number Fill in the field Russia Send SIGN IN FACEBOOK GOOGLE OR Fill in the field Russia I have read and agree to the terms and conditions I agree to Receive marketing materials GET STARTED. Computers, notebooks. Download zip, rar. Endomed is a privately owned South African company which was established in September 1997 after South Africa. Download zip, rar. Is food service a service. It's called a service because the primary focus of the industry is to serve people with food in. 1 Jun 2014. could get it as pdf, kindle, word, txt, ppt, rar and also zip data.. endomed 582 service manual, introduction to quantum mechanics phillips. 15 Dec 2015. 4-series (This manual is for the Endomed 482, the Sonopuls 490 and the. Endomed 482 classic model quick reference card Endomed 581id Endomed 582id. 23 Thng Mi 2018. 9b18ee624d. 17 Oct 2018. Title: Endomed 582 Service Zip, Author: banspajemic, Name: Endomed 582 Service Zip, Length: 4 pages, Page: 1, Published: 2018-10-18. Service clients par tlphone, chat, e-mail. Remboursement si vous n'avez pas reu ce que vous aviez command en cas de paiement avec PayPal ou avec. Health Services Research Projects in Progress;. 5. Current. Endomed 582ID) 100 hertz (Hz) frequency to the painful area of the affected extremity once.EndomedSI582id01.zip, 07 - OLDProduct Documentation, See details. SPRM590 is our current and most up to date repair manual. McCauley Propellers.Mccauley Propeller Service Manual - Manuals by. Endomed 582 Service Manual 1993 Kawasaki. Improvised Zip Gun Manual. Enraf Nonius Endomed 582 ID 582ID Electrotherapy Unit Free Shipping eBay!. Get fast shipping and excellent service from eBay Top-Rated Sellers.. Collins St Unit B Joliet, IL 60432. (815) 582-3565. Ages Served 21 - 120. Emergency Medicine More Info. View Details. 3 Nov 2016. Contact Customer Service i-bidder.com the-saleroom.com Antiques Trade Gazette Global Auction Platform Auction Technology Group.http://schlammatlas.de/en/node/22579 Endomed 582 Service Zip - 9b18ee624d endomed 182 service manual endomed 682 v service manual endomed 982 service manual. 13 Jul 2015. Bid Live on Lot 548 in the Medical Equipment Sale Monday 13th July 2015 Auction from Canute International Medical Services Ltd. 23 Oct 2018. 9b18ee624d. oracle database 12c student vol 2 zip endomed 582 service zip.Ich denke, uber diese Droge sollte jeder horen. Sehr cool, sehr effizient und vor allem zuverlassig. Ich rate allen und empfehle. Die Hauptsache ist, dass ohne pobochki. Bedieningshandleiding Operating Instructions Gebrauchsanweisung Mode d'emploi Instrucciones de manejo El soporte es adecuado para aproximadamente sesiones de tratamiento. El soporte de electrodo debe ser limpiado antes de ser usado por vez primera y entre las diferentes sesiones de tratamiento. El tratamiento de la Flora Pelvica no tiene que ser doloroso. No sumergir el soporte en un liquido. El soporte de electrodo no es adecuado para hervir ni para autoclave.Bedieningshandleiding Operating Instructions Gebrauchsanweisung Mode d'emploi Instrucciones de manejo Instrucciones de manejo Informacion complementaria para pacientes Anatomia Normal de la Pelvis Utero El prolapso de los organos pelvicos se produce Si tuviera fiebre, sangre en la orina, malestar o signos de traumatismo, detenga su uso de manera inmediata y comuniquese Instrucciones de Uso Dispondra de un articulo de alta calidad que proporciona un VEGAPULS 63 Conexiones a proceso asepticas. Document ID: 46197 Dr. Claudio Benavides Alba- Magister Ginecologia y Obstetricia Es un grupo de musculos en la pelvis que desempenan un papel esencial durante Catalogo internacional Indice Neen lidera el mercado de productos para la salud pelvica.http://mypizzaoven.com/images/comfar-manual.pdf Esta serie comprende una excepcional gama de productos Incluye un adaptador AC para Made in Germany Los pesarios en T se utilizan para tratar determinadas formas de incontinencia Numero modelo: Manual Usted ha dado un gran paso para reducir su dolor sin el uso de medicamentos. El Painmaster MCT es Ahora es posible. Ambu ascope Nuevo y Revolucionario Videoscopio Flexible Desechable para Intubacion Ahora es posible El futuro en tu mano mano tu en futuro El Ambu ascope Nuevo y Revolucionario Videoscopio Flexible Desechable para Intubacion Se puede tener siempre El montaje de la transmision EPS se SECADOR DE PELO ES pagina. Type E5901 Si tuviera fiebre, sangre en la orina, malestar o signos de traumatismo, detenga su uso de manera inmediata y comuniquese Cubre el lado no esmaltado de la baldosa y lo protege de golpes. Perfiles tecnicos para pequenas diferencias de altura entre Sustituye la tradicional pieza especial ceramica para peldanos por una combinacion de baldosa ceramica y perfil. Perfiles metalicos que cubren La Reflexologia Podal Ohaus Pioneer. Balanza de precision de laboratorio. Web con precios y versiones: Datos Tecnicos. Accesorios Estandar MODOS DE ESTIMULACION. Accesorios Opcionales Cuenta con dos canales independientes de estimulacion para tratamientos de baja y media frecuencia. nombre Uso decorativo como linea metalica.Le solicitamos tomar unos minutos para familiarizarse con las instrucciones No utilice En combinacion con Escrito por: Ryan Butler INTRODUCCION El puerto USB Micro es para cargar la tableta. ESTRUCTURA DEL PRODUCTO 1.1 Estructura externa 02. PRECAUCIONES 2.1 Puntos de atencion especial La instalacion y cualquier reparacion Conserve el manual para futuras consultas. Los electrodos de grafito se utilizan principalmente en la produccion secundaria de acero, Perfiles metalicos en angulo recto para la proteccion de esquinas. La mayoria de los modelos de procorner Con el fin de beneficiarse plenamente de este producto, lea detenidamente las Abril, 2009 Una infeccion respiratoria acompanada de fiebre y en algunas ocasiones MAXI TRAINER es el mas nuevo y tecnologicamente avanzado equipamiento To use this website, you must agree to our Privacy Policy, including cookie policy. This item may be a floor model or store return that has been used. See the seller’s listing for full details and description of any imperfections. All prices for the citizens of the Republic of Belarus in the portal are in Belarusian rubles. The prices for non-residents of the Republic of Belarus are displayed in the respective currency at the. The centre is situated in the mixed forest. At 50 m there is river Vilia. Interior design, equipment and furniture arrangement is specified for standard rooms and may vary. The price - for all car in independence of number of passengers. All prices for the citizens of the Republic of Belarus in the portal are in Belarusian rubles. Sector: Health Repair. DOHUK Medical Equipment. General terms and conditionsCodePage 1 of 91. QuantitySector: Health Repair. CodeQuantityDentist stool, color greySpare parts for dental x-ray model Heliodent DS. Accessories for Cryotherapy unit model ERBE Kryotur 600 procured under phase V against. Spare parts for ECG 3-channel digital model Delta 3 Plus. Page 2 of 91Sector: Health Repair. Code. Commodity. QuantityPage 3 of 91Sector: Health Repair. CodeQuantity. Wood's ????? Lamp for diagnostic skin disease complete with all essential accessories and spares for twoPhysiological Patient Monitor to measure ECG, Temp., NIBP, SpO2 and Respiration with complete set ofSiemens model Sirecust 961. Maquet Alphaclassic 1118.02. Accessory for Microwave therapy apparatus, model: 706. Cardiac Pacemaker (External), adult and paediatric, with all accessories and dispossables. Blood glucose monitor portable, complete with all accessories and blood glucose strips: 50 box and set 16. Pediatric Scale, electronic with digital panel with all essential accessories. Defibrillator with pediatric paddles, compelte set of accessories, consumables and spare for 2 years ofMaintenance and service contract for two years for ENT laser Surgical operating microscope model:BCE 1837 procured under phase II againstBCE 2136 procured under phase III againstCar repair tool set (inch). Car body repair set (metric). Car body repair set (inch)Sector: Health Repair. CodeService tool set (metric). Service tool set (inch). Tool set (metric). Tool set (inch). Portable car repair set (metric). Truck repair set (metric). Truck repair set (inch). Service tool kit (metric). Service tool kit (inch). Mechanical tool kit. Industrial tool kit (metric). Industrial tool kit (inch). Electrician tool kit (metric). Electrician tool kit (inch). Fine mechanic tool set (metric). Fine mechanic tool set (inch). Grinder, big. Grinder, small. Grinding disc, stone, small. Grinding disc, metal, small. Grinding disc, stone. Big. Grinding disc, metal, big. Drilling machine, 15mm drill head. Drill bits, metal, set up to 12mm. Drill bits, stone, set up to 12mm. Electrical welding equipment, 220V, 120A, incl.Stand saw for wood cutting. Welding electrodes 2.5mm, cartons 50 pcs each. Car lift jack, 10 tons, hydraulic. Set of: strethoscope light for car ignition, engine compression tester. QuantityApplication for 3 doctors and one engineer for a period of 2 weeks in a training center in Germany onAbroad Application for one Doctor on TUR-P Trans-urtnel Rescetion prostactrets (Urology) for 2 weeks,Abroad Application for one Doctor on Cystoscopy for 2 weeks, ordered under phase VII with code no. 0207-0046, travel and accomodation expenses should be included in the contract. Abroad training for Engineer on maintenance and Doctor on application of Servo ventilator 900C for 2Travel and accomodation expenses should be included in the contract.Travel and accomodation expenses should be included in thePage 5 of 91Sector: Health Repair. QuantityTravel and accomodationSpare parts for Erbotom HF-surgery Unit model ICC 300. Spare parts for Haematokrit Centrifuge 230V. Motor. Carbon brush. Micro switch. Switching panelOrthopedic External fixator system complete with all essential accessories. Electrical Drill, complete with all essential accessories. Internal fixation set. Orthopedic K. wires different sizes. Set of K. wire including instruments. Orthopedic beds for orthopedic ward complete with all accessories and essential options. Osteotomes, different sizes. Orthopedic Rush nails. Orthopedic Hammers. Orthopedic Gigly saw. Orthopedic screws, cancellons and corticall all sizes, set. Lapratomy complete set instrument and accessory set. Dynamic versatile modular system (for Humeral, femoral, tibial, digital pelvic and joint fusion, distalPenning Mini fixator Sterilization Box. Instrumentation Sterilization Box. Lower Extremitiy truma Sterilization Box. Tibial nailing system, complete set. Bone Screw Sterilization Box. Set for Growth Plate Distraction. Bone elevator (corba). External fixation set (Martin). Crutlets (Wallking aids). Bone cutter. Tonsillectomy set. Auroscop (opareting type). Ear specule (Metalic). Crocodiles forceps. Jobson Horns Probe. Cawthorn ceromen hook. Laryngel mirrors. Lempert suction tube (Zoellner suction tube with fine detachable ends). Microscope (Operating mobile zeizz), EP 205 (OPMI) ORLIS 5floor stand. Myringotomy Knife. Page 6 of 91Sector: Health Repair. CodeKillian nasal specula (4 size). Asch nasal forceps (Adult size,paediatic size. Walsham nasal forcps (adult size,paediatic size). Tilly nasal dressing forceps (adult size,paediatic size). QuantityENT consultants examination table. Auroscope crocdile forceps. Light source. Killian nasal speculum, 4 size. Trichlon. Vasaline Packs, silver nitrate 50Ear Syringe. Kidney dishes. Single pneumatic speculum with set of 5 of specula, blad finish. Tuning forks (different frqunces). Double-Ballon nasal Tampoons. Post nasal mirrors (diffrerent size). ENT Diagnostic, B-95.20.350. Tracheostomy tube (metalic) different size. Tracheostomy tube (porlex ) different size (cuffed-uncuffed). Tilly Henckel punch Forceps. Hydraulic foot-operated chair stool. Lack togue plates. Seymonr Jones Antrum punch forcaps. Yankanere post nasal speculam. Hill elevator. ENT Rigid Rinoscope, complete with all accessories and essential kits. ENT Ear microscope, complete with all essential accessories. ENT Treacheotomy set, complete with all essential accessories. Pounch forceps for polyp nosal. ENT Septoplasty set, complete with all essential accessories. Flexible nose phanynogoscope. Laryngeal mirrors of different sizes. Grednoted for nasal surgery. Nasal snare-krause. Balknce spare-aural. Siegles speculum. Lead apron 100 cm length. Lead apron 120 cm length. Analoge multimeter. Digital multimeter. Soldering iron 30 - 100 Watt. Set of ball head hexogonal wrench. Portable grinder machine. Vaccum compresser 1.hP.Bristol. Clamp meter 0 - 600A. Bristol. Pressure gauge for sphygnomanometer. Glass tube for sphygnomanometer ( Mercury ). Cuff for sphygnomanometer. Mercury for sphygnomanometerSector: Health Repair. QuantitySet of spare bulbs for 2 years of operationKitchen unit for 100 bed hospital, complete with all accessories, installation by the supplierAccessories and items from VBM Catalogue. Modular operating light system, single ceiling attachmnet. Set spare bulb for 2 years of operationPage 8 of 91Sector: Health Repair. CodeQuantityCT micropaque contrast powder. Accessories for CT scan Somatom AR Star. X-ray films for Mammomat 300. Bone marrow biopsy set pediatric size. Bone marrow set pediatric size. Portable video projector model In-focus LP400 with remote control, complete with all accessories and 4Low preasure chest suction complete with all essential accessories and spares for one year (SurgericalSlide projector complete with all accessories, model Ektapro 9020Video C.D. (D.V.D) complete set with accessories. Digital Vidio Camera, model DCR-TRV with accessories: memory stick 4mo, cable R5232C, C.D RomVCT-670 RM, Lens Grand angle VCL-0630Siemens Model: Siremobil 2000-1 with 23cm image intensifier. Bilirubinometer model Leica Unistat with all essential accessories, reagent and spares for 2 years.Electrocardiograph multichannel, digital with preview screen, battery operation and recording systemPatient leadsComputer, WHO standard, Pentium 2, Arabic enabled, 64MBMemory, 6 GB Hard Disc, Win 95, OfficeComputer disk standard size. HP LaserJet Printer, 1100, incl.Cartridge for HP1100(extra). UPS-Backup Pro, 220V, 650W. Norton Antivirus, last version. Scanner, manual and automati, 400-600 rpm, 220V with consumables kit. Library shelving model 100 D.4 double door cupboard. Photocopy Machine complete with all accessories, sorter 7 stapler AFR with 3 paper drum with set ofAnesthetic breathing system (maplescon A, maplescon F system). Microscope model BX-40-12H2 with 30 spare bulb. ELISA system for Hormonal assay (T3,T4,TSH, Progestiron, Oestrogen, Prolactin, FSH, LH. Testrosteron, Cortisol), 100 Test for each of the above hormon, with all accessories and set of spares andSector: Health Repair. CodeIncinerator apparatus (Furnace), medical use, complete with all essential accessories and set ofHalothane and Isoflurance vaporizer, closedSiemens model 710. Quality control and consistency testing in diagnostic radiologyCT-scan Dry films for Agfa model Dry Star 3000, 14x17 inch., pack of 100. Water mattress complete with all essential accessories. Air-mattress, anti-decubitis for adults with electrical pump. Nerve stimulators with stimulating needle, TENS for acute pain, with set of accessories and consumablesService and operation manuals in. English, 220V 50Hz. Electronic drop controller for infusion, model Quicktrol. Oxygen concentrator, Oxymat 3 complete with all essential accessories and set of consumaables per eachSphygmomanometers, mercury. Capnograaph, carbon dioxide monitor, exhaled gas with built-in printer, complete with all essentialDental X-ray unit model Heliodent DC, installation by the supplier and set of spares for two years ofQuantityTrainingSwivel Stool, 5-arm plastic-enamel coated aluminium base, height adjustment by means of anatomic-liftVarimed medi-net general purpose table mobile with 4 clad double casters diam. 75mm, chromium-platedInjection dispenser, pearl white LxWxH: 600x220x450 mm, White color. White colorHalogen examination lamp, with 5-arm base, chromium-plated, mobile, height adjustment from 1,200 toHalogen examination lamp, 220V, 12V, 20W halogen cool bulb, 18,000 lux, chromium-plated arm. White color. Page 10 of 91Sector: Health Repair. Step, chromium-plated frame, tread made of polyurethane, black, LxWxH: 490x330x240. Bed screen, 3 parts without curtain. Medicine poisons cupboards, hinged sheet steel door, LH hinges, with safety lock, adjustable plasticMedicine cupboards, 2 vhinged sheet steel doors, with lock, 5 adjustable plastic shelves, 14 adjustableLxH: 1000x(1750x450) mm. Theatre seat, upholstered seat with electrically conductive cover, height adjustment fromn 550 to 780 mmBlack colorBlack Color. Surgeon's seat, seat disc upholstered, electrically conductive cover, height adjustment 525 to 705 mm. Black colorAnaesthetics trolleys, 4 swivel-mounted casters diam. 125 mm, consisting of 2 full lock-type, electricallyX-ray protection Wrap around apronBronchoscope, Flexible for adult with Light Source with 10 spare bulb, with extra bottle and plastic lines. Manual Disinfector with extra liquid for Disinfector, all essential accessories or consumable for twoContinuous microwave therapy, model Radarmed 650, complete with all accessories and spare parts for 2Urodynamic measurment system, model PHOENIX MK2, complete with all accessories and spare partsInsulin syringes with needle, 1 ml, pack of 100. Insulin needles 1 ml, pack of 100Desk, laminated desk top with edge band, 2 lower cabinet, steel sheet. Corner Desk, laminateddesk top with edge band,lower cabinet on left, lower cabinet on rightPage 11 of 91Sector: Health Repair. QuantityDrawer unit, steel sheet with central safety lock 4drawers pull out fully. Swivel chair, on roller outer shell on seat and back rest (without arm rest). Swivel chair, on roller outer shell on seat and back rest (with arm rest). Visitors chair, with armrests. Swivel stool, five leg chromed steel base. Table, chromed square steel bar base. Caliper. Mallet. Pipe cutter. Storage cabinet, steel sheet, with 11 shelves, 2 swinging doors. Storage cabinet for small pieces, sheetmetal housing with non-skid bottom (hight 285, drawers 16 )Lift platform for weelchairs, solid steel construction, with hand-operable hydrauliclift mechanism,Tap and die set, HSS, DIN standards, 27 pieces, from M3 toM10, with tap wrench and die holder. Oil can, plastic, with built-in pump. Welding gloves. Welding face shield. Safety glassesSilkospray (universal silicone spray), cat no. 55 60 00. Insertion aid for fibre optic Intubation, 7.0 to 8.5mm, cat no. 50 26 00. Bronchopart double-Lumen bronchial tube set. Tracheal tube (Ruschelit) with low-pressure cuff size: 5.0, 5.5, 6.0, 6.5, 7.0, 7.5, 8.0 and 8.8 mmLeft side cat no. 11 61 00. Right side cat no. 11 62 00. Stent Forceps, cat no. 50 70 00. Nasopharngeal air way made of soft rubber. Cat No. 12 55 00. Cat No. 18 52 00. Oropharngeal air way, size: 000-6, cat no. 12 47 01. Allround Face mask made of rubber, size: 1, 2, 3, cat no. 15 40 65. Rebreathing bag made of silkolatex, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, 3.5 liters, cat no. 15 11 63. Pediatric Anaesthesia Set, cat no. 15 94 68. Variofix set, cat no. 15 98 04. M-connector made of plastic, cat no. 51 47 00. Y-connector, cat no. 51 41 00Sector: Health Repair. CodeT-connector, plastic, cat no. 51 44 00. Aluminium connectors, cat no. 51 43 00. Y-connector, right angled, cat no. 51 45 00. Chest heating blanket, cat no. 57 00 00. Whole-body heating blanket, cat no. 57 01 00. Pediatric pad, cat no. 57 02 00. Special Foam core, cat no. 57 02 01. Soft rubber gags, cat no. 61 00 00. Tourniquet Devices for I.V Regional Anesthesia, REF. 19-15-500. Jet ventilation catheter acc. Ravussin. For Infant, 18G. For Child, 14G. For Adults, 13G. Emergency Cricothyrotomy Device. For Child. For Adults. Laryngoscope with blades size 0-5. Laryngoscope masks Size (2-5). Gum elastic Bougie, for anesthesia unit patient part. Armared endotracheal tubes, (size 4-9). Pulse Oximeter, complete unit with accessories, consumables and spare parts for two year of operation,Anaesthesia delivery unit complete with ventilator incl. Halothane and Isoflurance vaporizer andModel 1300 III. Magial A breathing system. Magial F breathing system. Nurse call system. Ayres T-piece neonate Breathing system. Patients undergoing stapedioplasty had Argon ion laser cuts with endoscopic assistance made in the anterior crus and footplate to mobilize the posterior segment of the stapes while the anterior portion remained fixed. High?resolution small endoscopes, coupled with Argon ion or diode lasers promise to improve stapes visualization, enhancing the ability to perform minimally invasive surgery on the stapes footplate. Modern small fenestra stapedotomy procedures using the piston type of prostheses have enjoyed a long?standing record of excellent hearing results and minimal complications. There remain risks of complete deafness and vertigo complications. The most common reason for failure of stapedotomy or stapedectomy is a complication related to the prosthesis as reported by Silverstein, 1. who noted that 63 of revision cases in that study demonstrated a prosthesis failure.There remains the problem that there are many anatomical variations limiting access to the stapes footplate and anterior crus, which cannot be visualized directly in the majority of cases. Current fiberoptic delivered lasers allow the surgeon to deliver energy to portions of the stapes not even visible to the operating microscope simply by palpating the structures, but such “blind” maneuvers are less than favorable. It was intended to study the problems that may be encountered using endoscopic techniques, to examine the available laser options, and to perform an early clinical trial of laser stapedotomies without prosthesis using endoscopic techniques in part to examine the feasibility of the technique. An assessment was made of the role of endoscopes in facilitating the techniques, and various prototypes were studied so that recommendation for future designs could be made. Toynbee in 1853 again reported ankylosis of the stapes and described the disease process of otosclerosis, 5. but Wilde, 6. in that same year, squelched any thoughts of surgical repair when he stated that the inner ear “is never the seat of a surgical operation and cannot be examined during life.” In 1876, Kessel 7. recognized that the ossicles played a role in hearing and deafness. He removed the columella from pigeons and the stapes from dogs, monitoring their hearing by whistling and making other sounds while they sat quietly or slept. He noted that it required approximately 8 days for a neomembrane to cover their oval windows and restore some hearing. He concluded that removal of the tympanic membrane, malleus, or incus could be a possible treatment for deafness. In 1878, he attended a hearing impaired patient who fell off a wagon and suddenly could hear but unfortunately died of the injury. 8., 9. The patient's temporal bones showed fractures through the horizontal semicircular canal. Kessel subsequently performed horizontal semicircular canal fractures and excision of the stapes, covering the oval window with a tissue graft, but the hearing results were disappointing.He noted that the best results did occur if the bony ankylosis of the stapes was in an early stage, and the procedure was useless for advanced stages. Blake 15. in 1892 introduced the hearing restoration procedures to the United States and was the first to use the term “stapedectomy.” He performed 21 procedures, including 9 complete stapedectomies, 10 procedures in which only the crura fractured, and 2 procedures in which the stapes was too immobile to attempt a mobilization or removal. Vertigo was present in six of the cases. Jack 16. in 1893 presented 60 cases and noted that the results were inconsistent, regardless of whether a mobilization or stapedectomy was performed. Grunert 17. observed pathological changes in the round window and was one of the first to recognize that there may be a relationship between the oval and round window and that round window disease may negatively impact the results of even well?

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