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embedded c lab manual jntuDiscover everything Scribd has to offer, including books and audiobooks from major publishers. Start Free Trial Cancel anytime. Report this Document Download Now Save Save Embedded c Lab Manual For Later 0 ratings 0 found this document useful (0 votes) 132 views 35 pages Embedded c Lab Manual Uploaded by Kishore Cherala Description: embedded c lab maual for mtech jntu students Full description Save Save Embedded c Lab Manual For Later 0 0 found this document useful, Mark this document as useful 0 0 found this document not useful, Mark this document as not useful Embed Share Print Download Now Jump to Page You are on page 1 of 35 Search inside document. It provides FDA personnel with information on internal procedures to be used as an agency policy for testing consumer products, training of laboratory staff, report writing, safety, research, review of private laboratory reports and court testimony. So simply click on the respective sub name and download the Laboratory Manuals in pdf format. Just click on the respective subjects to download the Laboratory Manuals. Researchers use a lab notebook to document their hypotheses, experiments and initial analysis or interpretation of these experiments. The notebook serves as an organizational tool, a memory aid, and can also have a role in protecting any intellectual property that comes from the research. The content given in this site has been collected from various sources. We try and ensure all the information contained on the website is accurate and up to date. We do not hold any responsibility of miscommunication or mismatching of information. Kindly confirm the updated information from the official web site or relevent authority. Powered by: Cyware Technologies. You may have to register before you can post: click the register link above to proceed. To start viewing messages, select the forum that you want to visit from the selection below.http://www.termosystem.pl/userfiles/delonghi-canada-support-product-manuals.xml

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But in case, if we have missed any subject, please let us know about it by leaving a comment below and we will include JNTU lab Manual for all missing subjects. We would also like to inform that, these lab manuals cover all lab topics which are in the prescribed syllabus of JNTU, but we have not compiled it as per the syllabus. So students are advised to follow their syllabus and then pick the lab topics as per the latest prescribed syllabus. If you face any problem while downloading these B.Tech Lab Manuals, you may report about it through the comments section below. We have tabulated subject wise lab manuals in pdf format below. So scroll down and look for the subject, for which you are looking to download the lab manual and download it in pdf format. We have listed the subjects in alphabetical order. Not only for these Universities, students from any other university can also download these Engineering Lab Manuals and Handbooks for free. As we said earlier, this collection is quite new and we are making new section for it. So there might be dead links or misplaced resources. You are requested to report the same if you find any error. We would love to hear from you and rectify the problems. Also comment the name of the subjects below which we have missed to upload here for now and we will upload the requested subject lab manual within a day, we assure you in this regard. Lab sessions or practical’s as they are generally referred to help the students get a practical idea of the otherwise theoretical knowledge that is imbibed during regular class lectures. Hence these lab sessions are given utmost priority and are conducted with strict rules and procedures without entertaining any kind of laxity on the students or the lecturer’s part. It is a common fact that a student can take only so much factual or scientific information on any day. To make this otherwise dull and drab process, fun and easier to learn, the concept of lab sessions were introduced.http://ecosolar-energy.com/piceditor/delonghi-bco70-caffe-nabucco-manual(1).xml Practical understanding trumps theoretical knowledge any day and gives the students a better edge in the outside highly practical job industry. It is common sense that practical knowledge however immense is of no use without the proper understanding of the theoretical mechanics behind it. Then all the practical knowledge will only appear as a mere formality learned by rote by the students. So the universities of JNTUH, JNTUA, and JNTUK have come up with a proposition of inducting lab sessions as and when necessary and have made lab sessions compulsory along with the regular theoretical sessions. The importance of these lab sessions is also highlighted by the fact that they are given almost equal priority with theoretical subjects and are awarded enough credits to drastically change a student’s academic graph. Another important point to be highlighted here is the fact that university guidelines make certain lab equipment compulsory for colleges to be granted recognition which is a key factor as decided by the university board. These lab manuals cover all round information about each individual experiment specifying details like Aim, Apparatus Used, Theory, Experiment, Graphs, Calculations, and the Precautions. The detailed lab manuals posted here have been properly organized in an alphabetical order to make it a smooth experience for the users and students. Every effort has been made to include lab manuals for almost every subject covering all the major branches of engineering for colleges under JNTUH, JNTUA, and JNTUK. These JNTUH, JNTUA and JNTUK lab manuals are intended to serve the students in a way which makes it easier for them to get a thorough idea about each and every experiment and to clear any kinds of doubts over the process and calculations involved. The effort put in by the compilation time will be worth the toil when the students are able to properly use these resources to gain good credits during the lab internals and lab externals.http://www.familyreunionapp.com/family/events/boss-gt-10-user-manual-pdf Thus everyone can take most out of it. Feel free to leave your comments below as we love to hear from you. All Rights Reserved Pin It on Pinterest Don't forget to shout out of this information. Jntuh Jntu jntu unix lab manual UNIX and Shell Programming lab manual. UNIX and jntu unix lab manual Shell Programming lab manual UNIX and Shell Programming. Stm lab manual for jntuk students r jntuh ecad and vlsi lab syllabus mpmc lab manual jntuh mpmc lab manual for eee jntuk jntu unix lab manual r mpmc lab mannual jntuk 2- datastructures lab index jntuh lab manual for cse 2- r jntuh analog ic design lab manual hadoop lab manual pdf jntuk uml lab manual jntuk r AC Lab Manual Download BS Basic simulation Lab Manual Download EDC Lab Manual Download. All the question papers are uploaded in jntu unix lab manual PDF format. When you click on the question paper link, a new window will open with question paper jntu unix lab manual embedded in it. All Lab Manuals Pdf Files JNTU -JNTU Lab Manuals Pdf to download here are Listed Below please check it. Study and Install Python in Eclipse and WAP for data types in python. Write a Program for looping statement in Python. Study and Install IDE of Arduino and different types of Arduino. A Round Robin b SJF c FCFS d Priority. Lab Manual for Operating Systems - OS by JNTU Heroes. JNTUACEP OS practical View Total Page Uploaded years ago. Upgrade to Prime and access all answers at a price as low as Rs. JNTU EDC LAB MANUAL PDF - CO Correlation levels Slight Low Moderate Medium Substantial High. Assessment CO matrix: EDC Internal Lab Exam. Assessment Download link for CSE 4th SEM CS Operating Systems Laboratory Manual is listed down for students to make perfect utilization and score maximum marks with our study materials. Linux Programming Data Mining Lab Manual JNTU World. CS6431 OS Lab Manual Operating Systems Laboratory Manual. Lab Manuals For ECE CSE IT EEE AND MORE MMPI UNIX. Jawaharlal Nehru Engineering College Aurangabad.http://loszavera.com/images/96-ski-doo-shop-manual.pdfLab Manuals Archives Page 4 of 8 A Jntu World. JNTU EDC LAB MANUAL PDF Vip PDF Vision. LAB MANUAL vvitengineering. A plete Website for JNTUH Students Find all JNTUH. JNTUH B Tech Unix and Shell Programming Lab R09 Syllabus. Lab Manual for Operating Systems OS by JNTU Heroes. Jntuh Unix Lab Manual wsntech net. The page you are looking for might have been removed, had its name changed, or is temporarily unavailable.Internet Information Services (IIS). And by having access to our ebooks online or by storing it on your computer, you have convenient answers with Digital Communication Lab Manual Jntu. To get started finding Digital Communication Lab Manual Jntu, you are right to find our website which has a comprehensive collection of manuals listed. Our library is the biggest of these that have literally hundreds of thousands of different products represented. I get my most wanted eBook Many thanks If there is a survey it only takes 5 minutes, try any survey which works for you. I believe the download here is faster, and there are no ads at all. But this one is kind of more of my thing. Nevertheless, I like this one more than others. Services: Sync music, Manage music, Recover missing metadata, Record CDs Download MediaMonkey Now Buy MediaMonkey Gold Get Addons Never use any other conversion tool again. Find Music File Converter Mp3 Mp3 converter www.easypdfcombine.com Merge And Convert Files Into PDFs For Free With EasyPDFCombine App. I believe the download here is faster, and there are no ads at all. Very convenient unlike the other sites, no pop-up windows or redundant pics. Services: Sync music, Manage music, Recover missing metadata, Record CDs Download MediaMonkey Now Buy MediaMonkey Gold Get Addons Never use any other conversion tool again. These lab manuals are useful to all the engineering colleges which are affiliated to Anna University. CE (Civil Engineering) CSE (Computer Science And Engineering) ECE (Electronics And Communications Engineering) EEE (Electrical And Electronics Engineering) MECH (Mechanical Engineering) CIV (Civil Engineering) CHE (Chemical Engineering) IT (Information Technology) We will keep on updating this post with latest lab manual. We will send you the papers. Previous Post Next Post About The Author Team FirstRanker.com FirstRanker.com is an educational site for all the B.Tech, B.E, M.E, B.Sc, M.Sc, B.Pharm, M.Tech, M.Pharm, MBA, MCA, MBBS, BDS, MD, Degree, Nursing students. Add a Comment Cancel reply Your email address will not be published. Learn how your comment data is processed. AIM: a) To prepare the given specimen for metallographic examination. An optical microscope is used to study themicrostructure. A mirror polished surface of the metal is required for metallographic study.4. PROCEDURE OF SPECIMEN PREPARATION:a) Cut the specimen to the required size (small cylindrical pieces of 10 to 15mm diameter with15mm height (Or) 10mm cubes)b) The opposite surfaces (circular faces in case of cylindrical pieces) are made flat withgrinding or filling. In the disc-polishing machine a disc is rotatedby a vertical shaft. The disc is covered with velvet cloth. Alumina solution is used as abrasive.Alumina solution is sprinkled Continuously over the disc and the specimen is gently pressedagainst it. In case of Non-ferrous metals Such as Brass, Brass is used instead of Alumina andwater. The polishing should be continued till a Mirror polished surface is obtained.f) The sample is then washed with water and dried.g) Etching:- The sample is then etched with a suitable etching reagent, detailed in article 5. Metallurgy and material science Laboratory Manual II MECH I Semh) After etching the specimen should be washed in running water and then with alcohol andthen finally dried.i) The sample is now ready for studying its microstructure under the microscope.5. ETCHING:Except for few cases a polished metallic surface can’t reveal the various constituents (phases).Hence specimen should be etched to reveal the details of the microstructure i.e. a chemicalreagent should be applied on the polished surface for a definite period of time. This reagentpreferentially attacks the grain boundaries revealing them as thin lines. Thus under themicroscope the grain structure of the metal becomes visible after etching i.e. grain boundaryarea appears dark and grains appear bright. The rate of etching not only depends on thesolution employed and composition of the material but also on the uniformity of the material.A few etching reagents, their composition and their application are given below.Sl.No Name of Etchant Composition Application1 Nital Nitric.Methyl alcohol (95ml) and steel a) 5 Nital Nitric acid (2ml) and b) 2 Nital Abs. Methyl alcohol (98ml)2 Picral3 Marbel’s reagent Picric acid (4gm) and General structure of iron Abs ethyl alcohol (96 ml) and steel4. Murakami’s reagent Copper sulphate (4 gm),5. Sodium hydroxide6. Vilella’s reagent Hydrochloric acid (20ml) and7. Kellers reagent water (20ml) General structure of iron8. Ammonium persulphate and steel Solution Potassium ferri cyanide,9. FeCl3 solution (10grms), KOH (10grms) and Stainless steels water (100ml). Sodium hydroxide (10gm) and water(90ml) Stainless steels Hydro fluoric acid (20ml), Nitric acid (10ml) and Glycerene (30ml). Ammonium persulphate (10gm) Duralumin And Water(90ml) FeCl3 (5gm), Copper and copper HCl acid (2ml) and alloysBrass Ethyl alcohol (96ml) Metallurgy and material science Laboratory Manual II MECH I Sem6. METALLURGICAL MICROSCOPE:Metallurgical microscope is used for micro and macro examination of metals. Microexamination of specimens yields valuable metallurgical information of the metal. The absolutenecessity for examination arises from the fact that many microscopically observed structuralcharacteristics of a metal such as grain size, segregation, distribution of different phases andmode of occurrence of component phases and non metallic inclusions such as slag, sulfidesetc., and other heterogeneous condition (different phases) exert a powerful influence onmechanical properties of the metal. If the effect of such external characteristics on propertiesor the extent of their presence is known, it is possible to predict as to how metal will behaveunder gone by the metal. Study of structure of metals at magnifications ranging from 50X to2000X is carried out with the aid of metallurgical microscope.A Metallurgical microscope (shown in fig) differs with a biological microscope in a manner bywhich specimen of interest is illuminated. As metals are opaque their structural constituents arestudied under a reflected light. A horizontal beam of light from an appropriate source is directedby means of plane glass reflectors downwards and through the microscope objective on to thespecimen surface. A certain amount of this light will be reflected from the specimen surface andthat reflected light, which again passes through the objective, will form an enlarged imageof the illuminated area. A microscope objective consists of a number of separate lenselements which are a compound group behave as positive and converging type lens system of anilluminated object. Specimen is placed just outside the equivalent front focus point of objective. Aprimary real image of greater dimension than those of object field will be formed at some distancebeyond the real lens element. Objective size of primary image w.r.t object field will depend onfocal length of objective and front focus point of objective. By appropriately positioningprimary image w.r.t a second optical system, primary image may be further enlarged by anamount related to magnifying power of eyepiece. As separation between objective andeyepiece is fixed at same distance equivalent to mechanical tube length of microscope, primaryimage may be properly positioned w.r.t eye piece. By merely focusing microscope i.e. increase ordecrease the distance between object plane and front lens of objective the image is located atfocal point. Such precise positioning of primary image is essential in order that final imagecan be formed and rendered visible to observer when looking into eyepiece. If now entrancepupil of eye is made to coincide with exit pupil of eyepiece, eyepiece lens is in conjunction withcornea lens in eye will form a second real image on retina. This retrieval image will be erect, unreversed owing to the manner of response of human brain to excitation of retina. Rays after reflection pass through the eye again. Working table is secured on heavybase. The microscope has compound slide to give longitudinal and lateral movements byaccurate screws having scale and venires. Vertical movement of specimen platform is made bya screw to proper focusing. For getting perfect focusing fine adjustment of focusing can bemade use of.6.2.1. Light filters: These are used in metallurgical microscope and are essentially of threetypes a. Gelatin sheets connected between two planes of clean glass b. Solid glass filters c. Liquid dye solutionSolid glass filters are more preferable as they are more durable. Usually light filters are usedprincipally to render a quality of illumination. Hence filters improve degree of resolution.A METZ - 57 model microscopes is used in the laboratory.6.2.2 Optical compilation:Eye pieces and objectives of different magnifications are available.Huygens eyepieces: 5X, 10XAchromatic objectives: 5X, 10X, 45X7. PRECAUTIONS:a. Ensure mirror polished surface of specimen before etching.b. Fine focusing should be done only after correct focusing has been done.c. The glass lens should not be touched with fingers.8. RESULT: Hence prepared a specimen for metallographic examination Metallurgy and material science Laboratory Manual II MECH I Sem9. If so why? If not why not?xiii. What is the difference between Metallurgical microscope and Biological microscope?xiv. What is the magnification of the microscope?xv. What are the different magnifications available in the microscope of our laboratory?xvi. What are the precautions to be observed while studying, microstructure undermicroscope?xvii. What is the use of light filters? xviii. How do you calculate the magnifying power of a microscope? 7 Metallurgy and material science Laboratory Manual II MECH I SemEXPERIMENT-2: ACCORDING TO JNTU SYLLABUSSTUDY OF MICROSTRUCTURES OF NON FERROUS METALS1. A wide range of non ferrous metals areemployed for various engineering applications. Most Non ferrous metals posses goodcorrosion resistance, formability, cast ability and special electrical and magnetic properties.Important Non-ferrous metals, their melting points and crystal structures are tabulated hereunder.S.No Name 14. MeltingZpionicnt Degrees1. Aluminium (Al) 8 C 6602. Antimony (Sb) 6303. Bismuth (Bi) 2714. Cadmium (Cd) 3215. Chromium (Cr) 19006. Copper (Cu) 10837. Gold 10648. Lead 3279. Magnesium (Mg) 65010. REVIEW QUESTIONS:i. What are the important properties of Non-Ferrous metals and alloys?ii. List out some important Non-Ferrous metals?iii. What is melting point temperature of Aluminium?iv. What is the crystal structure of Magnesium?v. FCC metals are usually ductile and have high strain hardening tendency. Explain why? Metallurgy and material science Laboratory Manual II MECH I Sem: EXPERIMENT-No.3: ACCORDING TO JNTU SYLLABUSPREPARATION AND STUDY OF MICROSTRUCTURES OF CAST IRONS1. AIM: To identify the different phases and to draw the microstructures of different cast irons.2. APPARATUS AND SPECIMENS REQUIRED: Metallurgical microscope, specimens of different cast irons3. THEORY: Cast irons are Iron carbon alloys in which carbon content varies from 2 to 6.67. Cast ironsthat contain carbon percentage between 2 to 4.3 it is called hypo eutectic cast iron. If corboncontent of cast iron is 4.3 it is called as eutectic cast iron. The alloy is further cooled to room temperature there isno change in the microstructure. Metallurgy and material science Laboratory Manual II MECHI Sem 3.4 The useful properties of cast iron arei) Good fluidity(ability to fill narrow cavities in castings in liquid steel) ii) Low melting pointiii) Good machinablity iv) Less dimensional changes during solidification.Cast irons are brittle and have low tensile strength than most of the steels. Specially in the caseof Grey cast iron, the graphite present will act like cracks and reduce tensile strength, toughnessetc.,Types of cast irons:Depending on the form of carbon, cast irons are divided intoa) White cast iron b) Gray cast iron c) Malleable cast iron d) Speheroidal cast irone) Chilled cast iron3.5a White cast iron:In white cast iron most of the carbon is present in combined form as cementite. This is obtainedby rapidly cooling the cast iron from its molten state. These are hard and hard and wearresistant. These are used only for hard and wear resistance applicarions and also used as rawmaterial to produce malleable iron. At room temperature microstructure of Hypi eutectic C. Iconsists of dendritic areas of transformed austenite in a matrix of transformed lideburite. Atroom temperature microstructure of eutectic cast iron consists of cementite and pearlite. Atroom temperature microstructure Hyper eutectic cast iron consists of cementite and pearlite. Atroom temperature microstructure Hypereutectic C.I consists of dendrites of primary cementitein the matrix of transformed lideburite.3.5b Grey cast iron:In Grey cast iron carbon is present as free graphite flakes. They contain more carbon andsilicon content than white cast irons. It is a low melting alloy having good castability and gooddamping capacity. The tendency of carbon to form graphite flakes is due to increase in carbonand silicon content and decreasing the cooling rate. Grey cast iron receive its name from thecolor of a freshly made fracture. At room temperature the microstructure of Grey cast ironconsists of graphite flakes and pearlite.3.5c Malleable cast iron;Malleable cast iron is produced by heating white cast iron to 900 to 10000C for about 50 hoursfollowed by slow cooling to room temperature. On heating white cast iron, cementite structurestend to decompose into ferrite and tempered carbon. The lubrication action of graphite impartshigh Machinability to malleable cast iron. Malleable castings are tough, strong and shockresistant. These are used for wide range of applications such as automobile parts, railroadequipment, man hole covers etc., and at room temperature the microstructure of Malleable castiron consists of rosettes of tempered carbon graphite in the matrix of pearlite.3.5d Spheroidal graphite cast iron (Nodular cast iron or Ductile cast iron):Spheroidal graphite cast iron is an iron carbon alloy having a structure composed of nodules(spheroids) of graphite formed directly during the process of solidification and embedded inmatrix of steel. The formation of spherical graphite is due to addition of magnesium for hypoeutecthic cast iron and cerium for hyper eutectic cast iron. This is used for hydraulic cylinders,values cylinder heads for compressor and diesel engine etc., Due to spherodization tensilestrength, ductility and toughness are improved. This cast iron combines the advantages of cast Metallurgy and material science Laboratory Manual II MECHI Semiron and steel. The graphite in spherical shape reduces stress concentration effect and hencehigher strength and toughness results.3.5e Chilled cast iron:Chilled cast iron is produced by adjusting the composition of white cast iron and then cooling itrapidly to room temperature. Rapid cooling promotes hard, thin layer on the surface of a softiron casting. It is used where surface hardness is important. It contains nodules(spheroids) of graphitesurrounded by ferrite in the matrix of pearlite.Applications: Used for gears, punches, dies, metal working rolls, furnace doors, etc.,RESELT: Hence identify the different phases and drawn the microstructures of different cast iron.5. REVIEW QUESTIONS:i. What are the different types of cast irons?ii. What is the difference between White cast iron and Grey cast iron?iii. What are the important properties of Grey cast irons?iv. Why White cast iron has limited applications?v. What is the structure of Malleable cast irons. Explain the heat treatment cycles used for black heart and white heart malleable irons?vi. What is the additional metal added for sperodisation for Hypo and Hyper eutectic cast irons. How they act?vii. What is Chilled cast iron?viii. What is the difference between Ferritic malleable, Pearlitic malleable and Pearlitic-ferritic malleable casr irons?ix. Why Gray cast iron has got that name?x. Why Gray cast iron is so brittle?xi. Explain important roperties of different types of cast irons. Metallurgy and material science Laboratory Manual II MECH EXPERIMENT-No.3: DIFFERENT FROM JNTU SYLLABUS1. The first lesson concentrates on the metallurgical microstructures of cast irons.- The photomicrograph at below shows a grey cast iron at 100X. It has been etched with Nital, as have all the other cast irons in this lesson.Note that the eutectic graphite is arranged in rosettes here. Grey cast iron - Answer: The austenite decomposed to ferrite plus graphite, and the graphite added itself onto the graphite flakes that were already present. Faster cooling rates can allow pearlite to form, or even martensite if the casting is quenched.2. pearlitic grey cast iron Here we have an example of a pearlitic grey cast iron, shown at 200X. Cooling of the casting was rapid enough that the carbon rejected by the decomposing austenite could not reach the graphite flakes. Metallurgy and material science Laboratory Manual II MECH I Sem Here the magnification is 500X, and there is an exaggeration of the volume fraction of phosphide eutectic in this particular area, because this is the lowest freezing microconstituent in this cast iron, and so it is concentrated in the last portions of the casting that freeze.3.Nodular cast iron Metallurgy and material science Laboratory Manual II MECHI SemThe photomicrograph at below shows the rounded shapes of the graphite nodules at100X. These shapes are typical in what is called ductile iron or nodular cast iron.This structure is obtained by inoculating the melt just before pouring with an elementwhich changes the surface chemistry of the graphite. This element (usually magnesium)reacts with surface active impurities (probably sulfur) so that the graphite can grow in adirection perpendicular to the basal plane of the hexagonal graphite crystal structure. Ingrey cast iron the graphite flakes grow edgewise.Here you can see the rounded shape and internal microstructure of a graphitenodule at 500X.Think about the vast economic effect of obtaining these ductility enhancingnodules in castings without the prolonged annealing treatment required tomake malleable iron. The savings in energy more than cover the extra energyneeded to make the metallic magnesium (which is usually produced asmagnesium ferrosilicon). Metallurgy and material science Laboratory Manual II MECH I SEMEXPERIMENT-4: ACCORDING TO JNTU SYLLABUS PREPARATION AND STUDY OF MICRO STRUCTURES OF PLAIN CARBON STEELS1. AIMTo identify the different phases and to draw the microstructures of Plain Carbon Steels.2. APPARATUS AND SPECIMENS:Metallurgical Microscope, specimens of plain carbon steel of different composition (untreated)THEORY:3.1 Alloy:Combination of two or more metals is called alloy. The substances that make the alloy arecalled its components. The metals are mixed together in required proportion when they are inmolten form and then they are allowed to solidify together. After solidification thecomponents of alloy may be in the form of solid solution, chemical compound, mechanicalmixture.If the constituents of the alloy are completely soluble in both liquid and solid state a solidsolution is formed. If constituents of the alloy are completely soluble in liquid state andcompletely insoluble in solid state a mechanical mixture is formed.3.1.1 Phase:A homogenous, physically distinct and MecHanically separable part of the system under study is known as phase.3.2 Cooling Curve:For a Molten metal that is cooled from molten state to room temperature the graph drawnbetween time on X-axis and temperature on Y-axis is known as a cooling curve. A pure metalsolidifies at constant temperature. Metallurgy and material science Laboratory Manual II MECH I Sem3.2. a. Cooling Curve of pure metal:Cooling curve of pure metal is shown in fig. As metal is further cooled the temperature of metal remainsconstant but metal is converted from liquid state to solid state. ABCD is the liquids line and AHJECF the solidus line of the system. (i.e. the alloy will be completely in liquid state at all temperature above liquids line and will be under solid state at all temperatures below solidus line).3.4.2 Critical points: The temperature at which the transformation in solid state occurs are called critical points. In hypo eutectoid steels GS (A3 line) and PS (A1 line) represents upper and lower critical points. Above X4 austenite is an unsaturated solid solution. At X4 austenitie is saturated withcarbon.

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